History of Bariatric Surgery
Jejunoileal Bypass (JIB) – 1950
In 1950, the medical industry brought bariatric surgery into the market, with Intestinal Bypass. Intestinal bypass, known as Jejunoileal Bypass (JIB), was the first type of bariatric surgery where a large part of the intestine is bypassed, while the stomach stays intact.
The Jejunoileal Bypass is one of the first surgeries designed for morbidly obese patients to lose weight from the 1950s through the 1970s. Two variations of JIB were practiced, the ES (end-to-side) and EE (end-to-end) anastomoses of the proximal of jejunum to the ileum.
The Jejunoileal Bypass, was the purely malabsorptive procedure (rare), is a surgery that bypasses most of the intestine. Although weight loss was enough, it caused severe complications due to permanent malabsorption. Patients would encounter diarrhea, night blindness, osteoporosis, liver disease, and liver failure. Other serious issues, like fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies, malnutrition and death can occur in patients with JIB.
Overall, the JIB is no longer being performed or recommended as it needs frequent hard-to-do revision surgery. This procedure and Jejunocolic Bypass were a stepping stone to future procedures.
Open Gastric Bypass Surgery – 1966
This lead to the Open Gastric Bypass in 1966, which is similar to the laparoscopic gastric bypass but instead the entire abdominal cavity is cut open for better access for surgeons.
Open Gastroplasty and Vertical Banded Gastroplasty – 1970
In 1970, the Open Gastroplasty was invented, splitting the stomach into two sections. 10 years later, in 1980, the open gastroplasty led to the Vertical Banded Gastroplasty.
Gastric Band (Lap Band) – 1978
In 1978, the Gastric Band, or LAP-BAND, was created. This procedure places a band around the stomach to reduce its size.
Duodenal Switch Surgery – 1986
Less than a decade later, the Duodenal Switch (DS) began, where the stomach size is reduced while the small intestines are bypassed.
Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery – 1994
In 1994 the Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass started as surgeons gained more experience with the open gastric bypass. This procedure is one of the most popular bariatric surgeries today.
Open Gastric Sleeve Surgery – 1997
The Open Gastric Sleeve, or Sleeve Gastrectomy, was created in 1997. This procedure removes up to 80% of the stomach.
Laparoscopic Gastric Sleeve Surgery – 2000
3 years later in 2000, the open gastric sleeve became the Laparoscopic Gastric Sleeve, needing only 5 incisions to complete the procedure.
Gastric Band (Lap Band) FDA Approved – 2015