Bariatric surgery is one of the most influential and well-known treatments for obesity. Although it is more commonly known as weight loss surgery, it is not exclusively used to deliver significant weight reduction results. Bariatric obesity surgery also enhances the body’s metabolic function, e.g., increasing the ability of insulin to be absorbed by the body.
Bariatric surgery reduces around 70% of adipose tissue mass (body’s fat) and improves its function (metabolism system) within two years of the operation.
The main objective of this review is to understand and investigate how the physiology of adipose tissue changes with weight gain. Specifically, the intensity of the metabolic impact bariatric surgery has on the body.
What is Adipose Tissue?
Adipose tissues or fatty tissues are made up of adipocytes (fat cells) and act as a “warehouse” to store and release energy within the body. Besides storing and regulating energy, fatty tissue gives the body proper insulation to function effectively.
Adipocytes or lipocytes are fat-storing cells that compose adipose tissues. It comes in 3 different types: white, brown and beige.
Adipose tissues are predominantly located underneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around the kidneys, the back of the eyeballs, and around the heart.
Obesity and Adipose Tissues
Adipocytes in persons manage the body’s metabolic homeostasis. Adipose tissue dysfunction is linked as a significant contributor to metabolic dysregulation. The number and size of lipocytes in obese individuals are larger than in lean individuals. The enlarged adipocytes of obese patients:
- Recruit (MI-activated) macrophages and causes inflammation
- They release a range of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), which recruits and activates additional immune cells at the site
- Originate predisposition toward insulin resistance
Obesity causes fat storage in adipose tissues as well as lipid deposits (ectopic fat) in and around tissues and organs.
Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
Bariatric surgery is broadly recognized as the best treatment for obesity. The escalated endeavors in recent years have added to our comprehension of this field. We understand the components by which weight loss surgery enhances metabolism and resolves or cures type 2 diabetes in patients.
Yet, we have improved our understanding of how metabolism is controlled. We notice mechanical clarifications as a significant achievement of bariatric surgery. For example, confinement of stomach volume and intestinal malabsorption have offered an approach to physiological clarifications that accentuate adjustments in gut signs to different organs. A critical inquiry is how these signs have immediate or aberrant effects on fat tissue metabolic capacity.
A developing assortment of proof connections fat tissue brokenness to key parts of the metabolic dysregulation that goes with an overabundance of body weight. Therefore, our point with the present survey is to review how fat tissue reacts to bariatric surgery and whether weight reduction autonomous instruments are associated with these reactions.
What Does Bariatric Surgery do to Adipose Tissue?
Apart from the physical reduction of fat mass, bariatric surgery circulates the fat from instinctive compartments, where they usually build up, up to subcutaneous compartments that favor systemic metabolic change. This means that bariatric surgery displaces the fat tissue from existing, built-up sections of the body to other sections with more metabolism to burn the fat.
Efficacy of Weight Loss Surgery on Adipose Tissue
The affectability of lipolysis (the breakdown of fats controlled by insulin) and catecholamines (the body’s response to stress) are enhanced by bariatric surgery. The protein signaling cells known as adipokine emission is adjusted while the fat aggravation and incendiary markers diminish. Some of these progressions have appeared to be free of weight reduction, and novel theories for these impacts incorporate changes in bile corrosive digestion, gut microbiota, and focal direction of digestion.
Ultimately, bariatric surgery is equipped to enhance aspects of how fat tissue works within the body. Most of these positive changes have not been clarified by the powerful impact of bariatric surgery.
Which Types of Bariatric Surgery Impact Adipose Tissue?
Bariatric surgery induces weight reduction by limiting the amount of nourishment the stomach can hold, malabsorption of supplements, or by a mix of both (restriction and malabsorption). Surgical intervention additionally causes hormonal changes. Today, most weight reduction surgeries are performed utilizing insignificantly obtrusive and minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).
From the restrictive and malabsorptive perspective, sleeve gastrectomy would be relied upon to be substandard compared to gastric bypass in light of the fact that it includes a bigger gastric supply and no intestinal bypass. Amazingly, the adequacy of LSG isn’t a long way from RYGB.
The two dominant bariatric procedures utilized in the Mexico Bariatric Center facilities are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG).
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
The RYGB leaves the patient with a little stomach pocket under the esophagus, and the gut nutrients are re-routed to such an extent that supplements are redirected from the upper to the lower of the small digestive tract. RYGB incites noteworthy weight reduction as well as enhances insulin protection with abatement of sort 2 diabetes much of the time.
Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy, or VSG, is an anatomically more straightforward task, including expelling around 80% of the stomach along with the more prominent ebb and flow, leaving intestinal anatomy unaltered. The gastric sleeve helps the patient feel fuller faster and stay full for longer periods of time, resulting in significant weight loss by eating less food.
Some time ago, this methodology was accepted to be viable exclusively due to malabsorptive and prohibitive properties. This worldview has changed over the past decade, confirming adjustments in gut nutrients effectively improve physiology modifications in gut hormone discharge imperative for managing and sustaining digestion.
LEARN MORE: Top Factors that Impact How Fast You Lose Weight
Every surgery has some positive impact, so it applies to both gastric bypass and gastric sleeve surgeries. Both weight-loss operations are effective for 60-80% excessive weight loss. Both cause favorable changes in gut hormones that suppress hunger, reduce appetite, and enhance satiety. They restrict the amount of food that the stomach can hold.
The current studies suggest that bariatric surgery reduces the mass of Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT), improves the circulating adipokines, and reduces lipid accumulation in the liver and blood. Adipose tissue is crucial to organism longevity and energy usage as it interacts with multiple metabolic target organs. Considering everything, bariatric surgery’s effect on fat cells is likely an essential element to the success of surgery; however, the mechanism is not clarified by any stretch of the imagination.
Global Healthcare and Bariatric Surgery
Surgical treatment for obesity, or bariatric surgery, is a proven method for rapid and long-term weight loss as well as resolving comorbidities associated with adiposity. However, the high cost of these procedures prohibits countries like the United States and Canada from offering this life-saving solution to the overweight and obese population. Outbound Medical Tourism, traveling outside of the country to receive medical treatments, is becoming a viable option for overweight and obese patients.
Medical tourism in Mexico is the most prominent option, as the surgical centers and surgical staff is offering the same or better services at a fraction of the cost. For example, Mexico Bariatric Center® offers a wide range of all-inclusive packages from arrival to departure.
Gastric sleeve packages for less than $5,000 – an average savings of 75% compared to the cost in the U.S. and Canada.
MBC is one of the only companies that offer the best Bariatric and Metabolic Board-Certified surgeons, a dedicated bariatric hospital, surgeon liaison, and a comprehensive after-care program with two nights of hospital and two nights of hotel stay.